A: Over-discharging is a problem which originates from insufficient battery capacity causing the batteries to be overworked. Discharges deeper than 50% (in reality well below 12.0 Volts or 1.200 Specific Gravity) significantly shorten the Cycle Life of a battery without increasing the usable depth of cycle. Infrequent or inadequate recharging can also cause over discharging symptoms called SULFATION. Despite that charging equipment is regulating back properly, over discharging symptoms are displayed as loss of battery capacity and lower than normal specific gravity. Sulfate occurs when sulfur from the electrolyte combines with the lead on the plates and forms lead-sulfate. Once this condition becomes occurs, marine battery chargers will not remove the hardened sulfate. Sulfate can usually be removed by a proper desulfation or equalization charge with external manual battery chargers. To accomplish this task, the flooded plate batteries must be charged at 6 to 10 amps. at 2.4 to 2.5 volts per cell until all cells are gassing freely and their specific gravity returns to their full charge concentration. Sealed AGM batteries should be brought to 2.35 volts per cell and then discharged to 1.75 volts per cell and then this process must be repeated until the capacity returns to the battery. Gel batteries may not recover. In most cases, the battery may be returned to complete its service life.
CHARGING Alternators and float battery chargers including regulated photo voltaic chargers have automatic controls which taper the charge rate as the batteries come up in charge. It should be noted that a decrease to a few amperes while charging does not mean that the batteries have been fully charged. Battery chargers are of three types. There is the manual type, the trickle type, and the automatic switcher type.
As UPS VRLA battery, the battery is in condition of float charge, but complicate energy shift still run inside battery. The electric energy during float charge has changed to heat energy, so request the battery work environment must have good heat release capacity or air conditioner.
VRLA battery should install in clean, cool, ventilated and dry place, avoid to affect by sun, overheat or radiant heat.
VRLA battery should be charge in temperature between 5 to 35 degree. Battery life will be shorten once temperature below 5 degree or over 35 degree. The charge voltage can not over exceed request range, otherwise, will lead to battery damage, life shorter or capacity decrease.
You may have heard it said "you need a 3 stage charger". We've said it, and we'll say it again. The best kind of charger to use on your battery is a 3 stage charger. They are also called "smart chargers" or "micro processor controlled chargers". Basically, these types of chargers are safe, easy to use, and will not overcharge your battery. Almost all of the chargers we sell are 3 stage chargers. Okay, so it's hard to deny that 3 stage chargers work and they work well. But here's the million dollar question: What are the 3 stages? What makes these chargers so different and efficient? Is it really worth it? Lets find out by going through each stage, one by one:
Stage 1 | Bulk Charge
The primary purpose of a battery charger is to recharge a battery. This first stage is typically where the highest voltage and amperage the charger is rated for will actually be used. The level of charge that can be applied without overheating the battery is known as the battery's natural absorption rate. For a typical 12 volt AGM battery, the charging voltage going into a battery will reach 14.6-14.8 volts, while flooded batteries can be even higher. For the gel battery, the voltage should be no more than 14.2-14.3 volts. If the charger is a 10 amp charger, and if the battery resistance allows for it, the charger will put out a full 10 amps. This stage will recharge batteries that are severely drained. There is no risk of overcharging in this stage because the battery hasn't even reached full yet.
Stage 2 | Absorption Charge
Smart chargers will detect voltage and resistance from the battery prior to charging. After reading the battery the charger determines which stage to properly charge at. Once the battery has reached 80%* state of charge, the charger will enter the absorption stage. At this point most chargers will maintain a steady voltage, while the amperage declines. The lower current going into the battery safely brings up the charge on the battery without overheating it.
This stage takes more time. For instance, the last remaining 20% of the battery takes much longer when compared to the first 20% during the bulk stage. The current continuously declines until the battery almost reaches full capacity.
*Actual state of charge Absorption Stage will enter will vary from charger to charger
Stage 3 | Float Charge
Some chargers enter float mode as early as 85% state of charge but others begin closer to 95%. Either way, the float stage brings the battery all the way through and maintains the 100% state of charge. The voltage will taper down and maintain at a steady 13.2-13.4 volts, which is the maximum voltage a 12 volt battery can hold. The current will also decrease to a point where it's considered a trickle. That's where the term "trickle charger" comes from. It's essentially the float stage where there is charge going into the battery at all times, but only at a safe rate to ensure a full state of charge and nothing more. Most smart chargers do not turn off at this point, yet it is completely safe to leave a battery in float mode for months to even years at a time.
It's the healthiest thing for a battery to be at 100% state of charge.
We've said it before and we'll say it again. The best kind of charger to use on a battery is a 3 stage smart charger. They are easy to use and worry free. You don't ever have to worry about leaving the charger on the battery for too long. In fact, it's best if you DO leave it on. When a battery is not at a fully charged state, sulfate crystal build on the plates and this robs you of power. If you leave your powersports in the shed during off-season or for vacations, please connect the battery to a 3 stage charger. This will ensure that your battery will be ready to start whenever you are.
Though there is a strict battery selection procedure, after a certain period usage, the non-homogeneity will appear more and more obviously. Meanwhile, charging equipment can’t choose and recongnize the weak battery out, so it is user who can take control of how to keep the equilibrium of battery capacity. User would better test the OCV of every battery regularly or irregularly in the middle and later period of battery pack usage and recharge the battery of lower voltage separately, in order to make the voltage and capacity as the same as other batteries , that decrease the difference between the batteries.
Regarding VRLA batteries, Below important maintenance tips to your client or end user, because only regular maintenance can help find individual abnormal battery during use and management system problem, in order to adjust in time to ensure equipments run continuously and safely, also extend battery life:
1. Ensure battery surface dry and clean.
2. Ensure battery wiring terminal connect tightly.
3. Ensure the room clean and cool (around 25degree).
4. Check the battery outlook if normal.
5. Check the charge voltage if normal.
More battery maintenance tips welcome to consult CSPOWER any time.
A: Sealed lead acid battery life is determined by many factors. These include temperature, depth and rate of discharge, and the number of charges and discharges(called cycles).
What is the difference between float and cycle applications?
A float application requires the battery to be on constant charge with an occasional discharge. Cycle applications charge and discharge the battery on a regular basis.
A: Discharge efficiency refers to the ratio of actual power to nominal capacity when battery discharges at the ending voltage in certain discharge conditions. It is mainly affected by factors such as discharge rate, environmental temperature, internal resistance. Generally, the higher the rate of discharge is, the lower the discharge efficiency will be; the lower the temperature is, the lower the discharge efficiency will be.
A: Advantages: low price, the price of lead acid batteries is just 1/4~1/6 of that other types of batteries with a lower investment which most users could bear.
Disadvantages: heavy and bulk, low specific energy, strict on charging and discharging.
A: Reserve capacity is the number of minutes a battery can maintain a useful voltage under a 25 ampere discharge. The higher the minute rating, the greater the battery's ability to run lights, pumps, inverters, and electronics for a longer period before recharging is necessary. The 25 Amp. Reserve Capacity Rating is more realistic than Amp-Hour or CCA as a measurement of capacity for deep cycle service. Batteries promoted on their high Cold Cranking Ratings are easy and inexpensive to build. The market is flooded with them, however their Reserve Capacity, Cycle Life (the number of discharges and charges the battery can deliver) and Service life are poor. Reserve Capacity is difficult and costly to engineer into a battery and requires higher quality cell materials.
A: The newer type of sealed non-spillable maintenance free valve regulated battery uses "Absorbed Glass Mats", or AGM separators between the plates. This is a very fine fiber Boron-Silicate glass mat. These type of batteries have all the advantages of gelled, but can take much more abuse. These are also called "starved electrolyte. Just like the Gel batteries, the AGM Battery will not leak acid if broken.
A: A gel battery design is typically a modification of the standard lead acid automotive or marine battery. A gelling agent is added to the electrolyte to reduce movement inside the battery case. Many gel batteries also use one way valves in place of open vents, this helps the normal internal gasses to recombine back into water in the battery, reducing gassing. "Gel Cell" batteries are non-spillable even if they are broken. Gel cells must be charged at a lower voltage (C/20) than flooded or AGM to prevent excess gas from damaging the cells. Fast charging them on a conventional automotive charger may be permanently damage a Gel Battery.
A: The most common battery rating is the AMP-HOUR RATING. This is a unit of measurement for battery capacity, obtained by multiplying a current flow in amperes by the time in hours of discharge. (Example: A battery which delivers 5 amperes for 20 hours delivers 5 amperes times 20 hours, or 100 ampere-hours.)
Manufacturers use different discharge periods to yield an different Amp-Hr. Rating for the same capacity batteries, therefore, the Amp-Hr. Rating has little significance unless qualified by the number of hours the battery is discharged. For this reason Amp-Hour Ratings are only a general method of evaluating a battery's capacity for selection purposes. The quality of internal components and technical construction within the battery will generate different desired characteristics without effecting its Amp-Hour Rating. For instance, there are 150 Amp-Hour batteries that will not support an electrical load overnight and if called upon to do so repetitively, will fail early in their life. Conversely, there are 150 Amp-Hour batteries that will operate an electrical load for several days before needing recharging and will do so for years. The following ratings must be examined in order to evaluate and select the proper battery for a specific application: COLD CRANKING AMPERAGE and RESERVE CAPACITY are ratings used by the industry to simplify battery selection.
A: All sealed lead acid batteries self-discharge. If the capacity loss due to self-discharge is not compensated for by recharging, the battery capacity may become unrecoverable. Temperature also plays a role in determining the shelf life of a battery. Batteries are best stored at 20℃. When batteries are stored in areas where the ambient temperature varies, self-discharge can be greatly increased. Check the batteries every three months or so and charge if necessary.